INTERNATIONAL SALES CONTRACTS

Vienna Convention
United National Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.
Regulates contracts formed between parties with their establishments located in different countries, even if neither party is located in a country that has ratified the Convention. Its purpose is to offer legal security and to provide uniformity for regulation of international sales transactions for goods.

STANDARDS ON DELIVERY OF GOODS

Incoterms 2010 Rules
Rules from the International Chamber of Commerce that delimit the rights and obligations of the parties in an international sales transaction, in relation to the various phases of the shipping process selected and the agreed-upon conditions for delivery of the goods.

ROAD TRANSPORT

CMR Convention
Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road. Formalisation of this contract takes place using the “international waybill”.
Overland Transport of Goods Act (15/2009), applicable in Spain.

RAILWAY TRANSPORT

The Vilnius Protocol or OTIF Convention
The Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail, which compiles the uniform rules related to contracts for international transport of goods by railway.

MARITIME SHIPPING

Hague Rules
The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Laws relating to Bills of Lading.

AIR TRANSPORT

Warsaw Convention
A convention on civil aviation regarding the limits of the carrier’s liability in cases where a value is declared for the transport, the inclusion of technical and commercial details on the shipment, instructions for handling cargo, the right to establish reservations, and other provisions related to international air transport.
Montreal Convention
International Convention on the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air.

CARGO PACKING AND SECURING

CTU Code
The Code covering packing of cargo transport units, established by the International Maritime Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
IRU Manual
Code of best practices for secure packing of cargo for road transport, published by the International Road Transport Union (IRU).

DANGEROUS GOODS

Maritime shipping: IMDG Code.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.
Road transport: ADR Convention.
The European Agreement concerning International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road.
Railway transport: RID Convention.
Convention concerning International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail.
Air transport: IATA DGR Rules.
International Air Transport Dangerous Goods Regulations.

PERISHABLE GOODS

ATP Agreement
Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs. The contents of this agreement regulate the characteristics that vehicles must have for keeping goods at a specific temperature, the manner of testing their variations over time, and sampling and temperature requirements for perishable and frozen goods.

ENDANGERED SPECIES

CITES Convention
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.